Ilona Nickels
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Accountability of Elected Officials
Career Paths to Congress
Chaplains in the U.S. Congress
House Ethics Process
House/Senate Differences
Lame Duck Congress: Attendance and Voting
Members of Congress: a Job Description
Oath of Office for Members of Congress
Pledge of Allegiance: Use in Congress
Qualifications to Run for Congress
Senate: 50-50 Split?
Senate Majority Leader: A Job Description
Sessions of Congress: Lengths
Size of House and Senate
Speaker of the House: a Job Description
Speaker of the House: Resignation from Office
Amending the Constitution
Constitutionality of Legislation
August Recesses
First Congress
GOP: Origins of Term
Ideology: Left or Right
Lame Duck Congress: Definition
Party Animals: the Donkey and the Elephant
Statue of Freedom
U.S. Citizenship Test
Amendment Tree in the Senate
Changing a Law
Conference Committees: In Decline
Conference Committees: Procedures
“Deem and Pass” Procedure
Executive Orders
Holds in the Senate
How to Find Basic Legislative Information
How to Keep Up With Congress
Types of Legislation

Capitol Corner

Pledge of Allegiance: Use in Congress

Do Members of Congress say the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag?

Pledge of Allegiance: Use in Congress by Ilona NickelsYes. But only recently. The Senate has opened its daily session with the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag since June 24, 1999. The House began reciting the Pledge as part of its daily session eleven years earlier in 1988.

The 11-year gap between the House and Senate’s practice ended when a New Hampshire constituent (the power of one!) brought the discrepancy between the House and Senate to the attention of then-Senator Bob Smith (R-NH).

Senator Smith then introduced a resolution to begin the practice in the Senate. The resolution to amend the Standing Rules of the Senate and institute a daily Pledge was adopted by unanimous consent of the Senate on June 23, 1999. Since then, the Pledge of Allegiance has been recited daily in the Senate by its Presiding Officer, or another Senator designated for that purpose.

Presidential politics in 1988 precipitated the practice of reciting the Pledge of Allegiance in the House. During the 1988 campaign, candidate George Bush criticized candidate Michael Dukakis for his veto of a Massachusetts state bill to require the Pledge of Allegiance in all public schools in that state. House Republicans (then in the minority) surprised their chamber by offering a privileged resolution to require that each House day commence with the Pledge.

Then-Speaker Jim Wright (D-TX) came to the floor and chastised Republicans for using the Pledge of Allegiance to make a partisan point, saying, "I think it is very important that all of us recognize that the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag is something intended to unite us, not intended to divide us." However, with electoral sensitivities in mind, Speaker Wright then went on to announce he would call upon the chairman of the House Veterans' Committee, then-Representative Sonny Montgomery (D-MS), to offer the Pledge when the House next met.

Rep. Montgomery recited the first Pledge of Allegiance on the House floor on September 13, 1988. The Speaker then decided the Pledge would start each House session from that day forward. He announced recognition would alternate between the two parties to keep the practice bi-partisan. When Republicans gained the majority in 1995, they amended the House rules for the 104th Congress, making the Pledge of Allegiance permanent.

The Pledge of Allegiance has had a few words altered over the years, the last change being the addition of the words "under God" in 1954. For more historical background on the Pledge of Allegiance, visit the Department of Veterans Affairs website.

The Pledge of Allegiance was authored by Francis Bellamy in 1892 for a children's magazine he edited, known as "The Children's Companion." Bellamy lobbied President Benjamin Harrison to proclaim October 21 of that year a general holiday to commemorate the 400 year anniversary of Columbus' discovery of America. He envisioned flags flying over every schoolhouse in the country, and schoolchildren gathering to recite his pledge. President Harrison agreed, and Bellamy saw his dream realized.

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